Field tests indicate the radioactivity level of the filter socks illegally dumped in Williston, N.D., doesn’t pose a threat to the public.

Sand use has intensified and in some cases supplanted alternatives such as ceramic as the preferred proppant.

‘The interesting thing with this technology is it allows you to optimize spacing. It is one of the first technologies ever like this in the hole. What it allows you to do post-frack is determine how many of the fracks you pumped actually communicated with the prior frack,’ says Jones Energy’s Stephen Roberts.